when the screen goes dark and u see ur reflection


(via tyleroakley)

Source: dicketysplit


before and after listening to BEYONCÉ

(via tyleroakley)

Source: boydsgn


08 March 2014

Fistful of Fingers

Polydactyly – having more than five fingers or toes – is surprisingly common in the population, with roughly one in 500 children born with extra digits. It’s due to faulty patterns of gene activity as a baby’s limbs are developing in the womb, and scientists are trying to track down the culprits. Mice develop paws in the same way we build our hands and feet, so they’re a good model for figuring out what’s going on. The bones on the left are from the hind foot of a normal mouse with five toes. But the foot on the right belongs to an animal with a faulty version of a gene called Gata6, resulting in seven toes. Unravelling the complex genetic network that creates the correct number of fingers and toes in mice is shedding light on what goes on during the development of our own hands and feet.

Written by Kat Arney

Image courtesy of Elena Kozhemyakina, Andreia Ionescu and Andrew Lassar
Harvard Medical School
Originally published under a Creative Commons Licence (BY 4.0)
Research published in PLOS Genetics, January 2014

Source: bpod-mrc


i hope manners is the next cool trend

(via tyleroakley)

Source: baracknobama


Here’s an idea…

Source: veritasium

Anti-psychotic Medications Offer New Hope in the Battle Against Glioblastoma


Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have discovered that FDA-approved anti-psychotic drugs possess tumor-killing activity against the most aggressive form of primary brain cancer, glioblastoma. The finding was published in this week’s online edition of Oncotarget.

The team of scientists, led by principal investigator, Clark C. Chen, MD, PhD, vice-chairman, UC San Diego, School of Medicine, division of neurosurgery, used a technology platform called shRNA to test how each gene in the human genome contributed to glioblastoma growth.  The discovery that led to the shRNA technology won the Nobel Prize in Physiology/Medicine in 2006.

“ShRNAs are invaluable tools in the study of what genes do. They function like molecular erasers,” said Chen. “We can design these ‘erasers’ against every gene in the human genome. These shRNAs can then be packaged into viruses and introduced into cancer cells. If a gene is required for glioblastoma growth and the shRNA erases the function of that gene, then the cancer cell will either stop growing or die.”

Chen said that one surprising finding is that many genes required for glioblastoma growth are also required for dopamine receptor function. Dopamine is a small molecule that is released by nerve cells and binds to the dopamine receptor in surrounding nerve cells, enabling cell communication.

Abnormal dopamine regulation is associated with Parkinson’s disease, schizophrenia, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Because of the importance of dopamine in these diseases, drugs have been developed to neutralize the effect of dopamine, called dopamine antagonists. 

Following clues unveiled by their shRNA study, Chen and his team tested the effects of dopamine antagonists against glioblastoma and found that these drugs exert significant anti-tumor effects both in cultured cells and mouse models. These effects are synergistic when combined with other anti-glioblastoma drugs in terms of halting tumor growth.

“The anti-glioblastoma effects of these drugs are completely unexpected and were only uncovered because we carried out an unbiased genetic screen,” said Chen.

“On the clinical front, the finding is important for two reasons,” said Bob Carter, MD, PhD, chairman of UC San Diego, School of Medicine, division of neurosurgery. “First, these drugs are already FDA-cleared for human use in the treatment of other diseases, so it is possible these drugs may be re-purposed for glioblastoma treatment, thereby bypassing years of pre-clinical testing. Second, these drugs have been shown to cross the blood-brain barrier, a barrier that prevents more than 90 percent of drugs from entry into the brain.”

Chen is now working with the UC San Diego Moores Cancer Center Neuro-Oncology team to translate his findings into a clinical trial.

(via neurosciencestuff)

Source: health.ucsd.edu



one step closer to taking over the world

fox news hates me, i’ve made it

Source: primagian